The utility of monoclonal antibodies in the imaging of prostate cancer
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to prostate-specific antigens, such as PSMA, have great potential as diagnostic and therapeutic tools in the management of advanced prostate cancer. PSMA is a very attractive target for mAb-based imaging. It is expressed by virtually all prostate cancers and its expression is further increased in poorly differentiated, metastatic, and hormone-refractory carcinomas. The ProstaScint scan (Cytogen, Princeton, NJ), based on the mAb 7E11-C5.3, is currently approved for the imaging of prostate cancer in soft tissue but is not approved for imaging bone metastases. It appears superior to conventional imaging studies for soft-tissue disease but has limitations attributed to its intracellular binding site on PSMA. Overcoming this limitation, new mAbs to the extracellular domain of PSMA have been developed. The radioisotopes, (111)Indium, (90)Yttrium, and (177)Lutetium have been conjugated to one such mAb, J591. Radioimmunoscintigraphy with this immunoconjugate has demonstrated excellent tumor targeting of prostate cancer sites not only in soft tissue but also in bone.