Phosphoinositide 3-kinase in immunological systems
Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are an evolutionarily conserved family of signal transducing enzymes. A great variety of stimuli activate PI3K, leading to the transient accumulation of its lipid products in cell membranes. These lipids serve as second messengers to regulate the location and activity of an array of downstream effector molecules. In cells of the mammalian immune system, PI3K is activated by receptors for antigen, cytokines, costimulatory molecules, immunoglobulins and chemoattractants. Signaling via PI3K regulates immune cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, degranulation, and respiratory burst. Here we review our current understanding of PI3K signaling in leukocytes.