Anti-platelet antibodies associated with the Canale-Smith syndrome bind to the same platelet glycoprotein complexes as those of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura patients
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid
The Canale-Smith syndrome (CSS) is an inherited disease characterized by massive lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly and systemic autoimmunity to erythrocytes and platelets. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an autoimmune disease in which approximately 60-80% of patients have anti-platelet antibodies directed against specific platelet glycoprotein complexes (GPCs) located on their membrane: GP IIb/IIIa, GPIb/IX, and GPIa/IIa. Almost all (95-100%) of the antibody-positive patients have antibodies directed against GPIIb/IIIa alone, or in combination with other glycoprotein targets. Our objective was to determine the specificities of the anti-platelet antibodies in CSS patients. The detection of anti-platelet antibodies was performed using a commercially available ELISA, the Pak-AUTO (GTI, Brookfield, WI), in which highly purified GPIIb/IIIa, GPIb/IX, and GPIa/IIa are immobilized on microtitre plates, incubated with serum or plasma, and subsequently developed with an antihuman polyclonal immunoglobulin. Of 14 CSS patients tested, 11 (79%) had anti-platelet antibodies in their serum directed toward at least one of the three major GPC, nine (82%) of which were against GPIIb/IIIa alone or in combination. Antibodies detected in the sera of ITP patients had similar specificities. No such antibodies were detected in samples from 25 consecutive normal controls. These results demonstrate that a genetically defined defect in lymphocyte apoptosis results in a humoral autoimmune response with anti-platelet specificities very similar to the common idiopathic form of autoimmune thrombocytopenia.