Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockade in the treatment of left ventricular hypertrophy in arterial hypertension
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
Calcium Channel Blockers
Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular
In arterial hypertension, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (H) is a prognostically relevant target organ damage associated with systolic and diastolic LV dysfunction. The level of LV dysfunction seems to be related to the degree of myocardial fibrosis. Prognosis of hypertensive patients who have LVH regression appears to be improved. Therefore, LVH regression is an important antihypertensive treatment goal. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is implicated in LVH development and myocardial fibrosis in essential arterial hypertension. Early studies in the 80s and 90s have led expectations that angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors could induce greater LVH regression than other antihypertensive drugs at similar blood pressure reduction. In the late 90s, the double-blind randomized controlled PRESERVE trial (Prospective Randomize Enalapril Study Evaluating Reversal of Ventricular Enlargement) has been designed to evaluate whether the ACE inhibitor enalapril was more effective than nifedipine GITS in regressing LVH and improving LV diastolic dysfunction. The PRESERVE study demonstrated a mildly higher antihypertensive effect of nifedipine GITS than enalapril, which required more frequently association with hydrochlorothiazide to control blood pressure. However, at similar level of blood pressure reduction achieved with enalapril and long-acting nifedipine in association with hydrochlorothiazide or atenolol, both antihypertensive treatments showed similar efficacy in LVH regression and LV diastolic filling improvement.