The role of adjuvant therapy after liver resection for colorectal cancer metastases.
Intrahepatic recurrence is common after major resection for colorectal cancer (CRC) metastases to the liver. In this review, the available data on different adjuvant therapies from systemic chemotherapy to regional approaches by direct perfusion of chemotherapeutic agents via the hepatic artery and portal vein will be discussed. Intraperitoneal administration of chemotherapy is another form of regional therapy. Novel approaches with immunotherapy and trials of neoadjuvant therapy in association with resection of CRC hepatic metastases have also been reported. The purpose of this review is to outline these various strategies and their role in combination with resection of CRC liver metastases. Although improved hepatic disease-free survival has been demonstrated with some strategies, overall survival is minimally affected and recurrence of metastatic disease at distant sites is still a major problem. Therefore, future directions should incorporate the use of new systemic agents effective against CRC metastases. Identification of subgroups through clinical features, molecular markers, proteins, or specific tumor properties may also help to individualize treatment.