Separate and joint effects of systemic hypertension and diabetes mellitus on left ventricular structure and function in American Indians (The Strong Heart Study)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular
Although the association of systemic hypertension (SH) with diabetes mellitus (DM) is well established, the cardiac features and hemodynamic profile of patients with SH and DM diagnosed by American Diabetes Association criteria have not been elucidated. To address this issue, echocardiograms were analyzed in 1,025 American Indian participants of the Strong Heart Study with neither DM nor SH, 642 with DM alone, 614 with SH alone, and 874 with SH and DM. In analyses that adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, and heart rate, DM and SH were associated with increased left ventricular (LV) wall thicknesses, with the greatest impact of DM on LV relative wall thickness and of the combination of DM and SH on LV mass (both p <0.001). LV fractional shortening was reduced with SH and SH + DM, midwall shortening was reduced with DM, SH, and their combination, and was reduced in both diabetic groups compared with their nondiabetic counterparts (p <0.001). DM alone was associated with lower measures of LV pump performance (stroke volume, cardiac output, and their indexes) than SH alone. Pulse pressure/stroke index, an indirect measure of arterial stiffness, was elevated in participants with DM or SH alone and most in those with both conditions. There were progressive increases from the reference group to DM alone, SH alone, and DM + SH with regard to prevalences of LV hypertrophy (12% to 19%, 29% and 38%) and subnormal LV myocardial function (7% to 10%, 11% and 18%, both p <0.001). In conclusion, DM and SH each have adverse effects on LV geometry and function, and the combination of SH and DM results in the greatest degree of LV hypertrophy, myocardial dysfunction, and arterial stiffness.