Cytoskeleton-dependent membrane domain segregation during neutrophil polarization
On treatment with chemoattractant, the neutrophil plasma membrane becomes organized into detergent-resistant membrane domains (DRMs), the distribution of which is intimately correlated with cell polarization. Plasma membrane at the front of polarized cells is susceptible to extraction by cold Triton X-100, whereas membrane at the rear is resistant to extraction. After cold Triton X-100 extraction, DRM components, including the transmembrane proteins CD44 and CD43, the GPI-linked CD16, and the lipid analog, DiIC(16), are retained within uropods and cell bodies. Furthermore, CD44 and CD43 interact concomitantly with DRMs and with the F-actin cytoskeleton, suggesting a mechanism for the formation and stabilization of DRMs. By tracking the distribution of DRMs during polarization, we demonstrate that DRMs progress from a uniform distribution in unstimulated cells to small, discrete patches immediately after activation. Within 1 min, DRMs form a large cap comprising the cell body and uropod. This process is dependent on myosin in that an inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase can arrest DRM reorganization and cell polarization. Colabeling DRMs and F-actin revealed a correlation between DRM distribution and F-actin remodeling, suggesting that plasma membrane organization may orient signaling events that control cytoskeletal rearrangements and, consequently, cell polarity.