The cutaneous pathology of lupus erythematosus: A review
Calcium Channel Blockers
Lupus Erythematosus, Cutaneous
The presentation of lupus erythematosus (LE) ranges from a skin rash unaccompanied by extracutaneous stigmata to a rapidly progressive lethal multiorgan disease. The diagnosis and subclassification is traditionally based on the correlation of serological and clinical findings. The latter include a photoinduced skin rash, arthralgia, arthritis, fever, Raynaud's phenomenon, anemia, leukopenia, serositis, nephritis and central nervous sysdtem disease. The conventional classification scheme includes systemic, subacute cutaneous and discoid LE. Recent advances in our understanding of the cutaneous histopathology which correlates with the traditional forms of LE, along with certain novel LE subtypes, are the focus of this review. In addition to the main subtypes of LE, we will discuss associated vasculopathic lesions and the contribution of immunofluorescence microscopy to the diagnosis of LE and related connective tissue disease syndromes. Consideration will be given to unusual variants of LE such as anti-Ro/SSA-positive systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), bullous SLE, lymphomatoid LE, lupus erythematosus profundus, drug induced LE, linear cutaneous LE, chiblains LE and parvovirus B19-associated LE.