Water-clear cell hyperplasia is a rare but well-documented cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. Parathyroid adenomas of the water-clear cell type are exceptionally rare, and only 2 cases have been reported. We describe a patient with synchronous water-clear cell double parathyroid adenomas, an entity that has not previously been reported. In our case, the enlarged superior parathyroid glands were completely replaced by water-clear cells, with only a minute rim of extracapsular, histologically unremarkable parathyroid tissue. The inferior parathyroid glands were grossly unremarkable, and incisional biopsy specimens were histologically normal (no foci of water-clear cells were identified). The findings in this case are most consistent with the diagnosis of double adenomas of the water-clear cell type. We acknowledge that despite molecular proof of monoclonality of the 2 lesions, it is not possible to entirely exclude the possibility that this unusual case could be due to asymmetric hyperplasia.