Heart transplant in a factor VIII-deficient patient with a high-titre inhibitor: Perioperative management using high-dose continuous infusion factor VIII and recombinant factor VIIa
Iron Chelating Agents
Four years prior to transplantation, a 14-year-old boy with severe haemophilia A and a high-responding factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitor developed an anteroseptal myocardial infarct while receiving high doses of an activated prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC). Cardiac transplantation was required for survival because of the ensuing cardiomyopathy. At surgery, the patient's inhibitor titre was 1.8 Bethesda units (BU). High-dose bolus therapy, followed by a continuous infusion of FVIII provided excellent operative and initial postoperative haemostasis without additional blood-product support. Once anamnaesis developed on day 6 postoperatively, recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) therapy was initiated. Haemostasis remained excellent, except for the transient increase in chest-tube bleeding that was noted on day 7. epsilon-Aminocaproic acid was added and haemostasis was re-established. On day 15, rFVIIa was replaced with alternate day infusions of prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs). On day 21 following the transplant, the patient was discharged, remaining on daily FVIII immune tolerance and thrice-weekly PCC prophylaxis. He remains well 24 months after transplant with an inhibitor titre of 39 BU. This paper describes the second case of cardiac transplantation complicated by haemophilia and an inhibitor, and discusses preoperative planning and operative and postsurgical haemostasis management.