Association of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) with endosalpingiosis in the retroperitoneal lymph nodes: Report of two cases
We report 2 patients in whom pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) affected the retroperitoneal lymph nodes and was associated with endosalpingiosis. These lesions were large, encapsulated masses with multiple cysts containing chylous fluid. Both were characterized by proliferating LAM cells that formed fascicles separated by slit-like channels. Some cysts were lined by ciliated epithelium resembling that of Fallopian tubes. Other cysts were lined either by flattened endothelial cells or by a mixture of these cells and epithelial cells. Many LAM cells gave a positive reaction with HMB-45 antibody. Most LAM cells in fascicles were reactive for alpha-smooth muscle actin and desmin. In 1 patient, many of the epithelial cells and some of the subjacent LAM cells were positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors. In conclusion, immunostaining with HMB-45 antibody and markers for smooth muscle cells can be helpful in the evaluation of problems in the differential diagnosis of lesions of extrapulmonary LAM, particularly those involving the genital system.