Defining a common region of deletion at 13q21 in human cancers
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13
Physical Chromosome Mapping
Previous molecular genetic analyses identified a region of deletion at 13q21 in a variety of human cancers, suggesting the existence of a tumor suppressor gene(s) at this locus. In our earlier study on prostate cancer, the region of deletion was confined to a 3.1 cM interval between D13S152 and D13S162. At present, however, no known gene located in this interval has been firmly implicated in cancer, and the region remains too large for gene identification. To fine-map the area of interest, we established a contig of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones, narrowed the region of deletion by loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and homozygosity-mapping-of-deletion (HOMOD) analyses in different types of cancers, and tested a candidate gene from the region for mutation and alteration of expression in prostate cancers. The contig consisted of 75 overlapping BAC clones. In addition to the generation of 47 new sequence-tagged-site (STS) markers from the ends of BAC inserts, 76 known STS and expressed sequence tag markers were mapped to the contig (25 kb per marker on average). The minimal region of deletion was further defined to be about 700 kb between markers D13S791 and D13S166 by LOH analysis of 42 cases of prostate cancer, and by HOMOD analysis of eight prostate cancer cell lines/xenografts and 49 cell lines from cancers of the breast, ovary, endometrium, and cervix, using 18 microsatellite markers encompassing the deletion region. A gene that is homologous to the WT1 tumor suppressor gene, AP-2rep (KLF12), was mapped in this region and was analyzed for its expression and genetic mutation. In addition to low levels of expression in both normal and neoplastic cells of the prostate, this gene did not have any mutations in a group of aggressive prostate cancers and cell lines/xenografts, as assessed by the methods of polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing. These studies suggest that a 700 kb interval at 13q21 harbors a tumor suppressor gene(s) that seems to be involved in multiple types of cancer, and that the AP-2rep gene is unlikely to be an important tumor suppressor gene in prostate cancer. The BAC contig and high-resolution physical map of the defined region of deletion should facilitate the cloning of a tumor suppressor gene(s) at 13q21.