Mitotic counting in surgical pathology: Sampling bias, heterogeneity and statistical uncertainty Article Report uri icon


MeSH Major

  • Neoplasms, Second Primary
  • Thymoma
  • Thymus Neoplasms


  • Mitotic counting in surgical pathology: sampling bias, heterogeneity and statistical uncertainty Although several articles on the methodological aspects of mitotic counting have been published, the effects of macroscopic sampling and tumour heterogeneity have not been discussed in any detail. In this review the essential elements for a standardized mitotic counting protocol are described, including microscopic calibration, specific morphological criteria, macroscopic selection, counting procedure, effect of biological variation, threshold, and the setting of an area of uncertainty ('grey area'). We propose that the use of a standard area for mitotic quantification and of a grey area in mitotic counting protocols will facilitate the application of mitotic counting in diagnostic and prognostic pathology.

publication date

  • September 26, 2001



  • Report


Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1046/j.1365-2559.2001.01187.x

PubMed ID

  • 11454038

Additional Document Info

start page

  • 1

end page

  • 8


  • 39


  • 1