Laparoscopic aortorenal bypass using a PTFE graft: survival study in the porcine model.
To verify the technical feasibility of laparoscopic aortorenal bypass in a porcine model and to evaluate renal pathologic findings after a short survival time.
Laparoscopic aorta-to-left-renal artery bypass using an interposition Gore-Tex graft was performed in five animals. Renal function was assessed 1 week postoperatively and euthanasia performed after 14 days for histologic examination.
The median surgical time was 210 minutes (range 160-260 minutes). The median time needed to perform the aorta-to-graft anastomosis was 65 minutes (range 50-75 minutes), and the median time required to create the graft-to-renal artery anastomosis was 50 minutes (range 45-60 minutes). No conversion to open surgery was needed. Two intraoperative complications were observed: one large-bowel perforation, which was managed laparoscopically, and one obstruction of the aorta-to-graft anastomosis caused by clots, which was managed by removal of clots with a balloon catheter. No major postoperative complications were observed. The mean preoperative and postoperative serum creatinine concentrations were 0.8 +/- 1.2 and 0.7 +/- 1.6 mg/dL, respectively. At autopsy, all but one of the pigs were found to have a patent aortorenal bypass. In one pig, we found a partially clotted graft. Histologic examination demonstrated an unremarkable kidney in four cases and a kidney showing aspects of coagulative necrosis with viable cells in the animal with the partially clotted graft.
Laparoscopic aortorenal bypass is feasible. The short-term effect of the bypass on kidney vascularization seems promising, as demonstrated by pathologic findings. Laparoscopic aortorenal bypass could extend the indications for renal revascularization surgery.