Managing heart failure with immunomodulatory agents
Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
The evidence in favor of immune activation as an operative mechanism that contributes to the progression of heart failure continues to accumulate. Indeed, a number of clinical trials have demonstrated the clinical interest of interventions in this area for many years, but none have proven useful. The only trial ever conducted to define the effect of immunotherapy in mortality, however, is the one currently ongoing using Etanercept in patients with symptomatic heart failure. Irrespective of the final outcome of the study, the growing interest in inflammation as a contributory pathway in disease progression has now opened the field to develop new strategies for intervention. Whether specific or non-specific therapies may prove useful will be defined only by the results of randomized clinical trials.