Stem cell transplantation for the treatment of Fanconi anaemia using a fludarabine-based cytoreductive regimen and T-cell-depleted related HLA-mismatched peripheral blood stem cell grafts
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
We have employed a new cytoreductive regimen to transplant two patients with Fanconi anaemia (FA), using T cell-depleted two HLA-allele disparate related peripheral blood stem cell transplants (PBSCTs). Patient 1, a 5-year-old male with FA and aplastic anaemia, initially received an HLA two-antigen mismatched unrelated cord blood transplant and failed to engraft. He received fludarabine (Flu) and cyclophosphamide (Cy), followed by a CD34(+) E-rosette(-) (CD34(+)E(-)), T cell-depleted, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized PBSCT from his HLA B-DRB1 mismatched father. He received anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), steroids, FK506 and G-CSF after transplant for rejection and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. The patient is now 23 months after SCT with no evidence of GVHD and with full haematopoietic and immune reconstitution. Patient 2, a 10-year-old boy with FA and myelodysplastic syndrome, received single-dose total body irradiation (SDTBI), Flu and Cy followed by a CD34(+)E(-), T-cell-depleted, G-CSF-mobilized PBSCT from his HLA B-DRB1 mismatched sister. He also received ATG, steroids, FK506 and G-CSF after transplant. The patient is now 12 months after SCT in complete remission with no evidence of GVHD. Absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) of > 1 x 10(9)/l were achieved on day 11 and day 10 post transplant respectively. Both patients are fully engrafted. In summary, we report two successful T-cell-depleted stem cell transplants from mismatched related donors for the treatment of Fanconi anaemia, using a fludarabine-based cytoreduction. Both patients experienced minimal toxicity, rapid engraftment and no GVHD.