Biomolecular mechanisms of calvarial bone induction: Immature versus mature dura mater
The ability of newborns and immature animals to reossify calvarial defects has been well described. This capacity is generally lost in children greater than 2 years of age and in mature animals. The dura mater has been implicated as a regulator of calvarial reossification. To date, however, few studies have attempted to identify biomolecular differences in the dura mater that enable immature, but not mature, dura to induce osteogenesis. The purpose of these studies was to analyze metabolic characteristics, protein/gene expression, and capacity to form mineralized bone nodules of cells derived from immature and mature dura mater. Transforming growth factor beta-1, basic fibroblast growth factor, collagen type IalphaI, osteocalcin, and alkaline phosphatase are critical growth factors and extracellular matrix proteins essential for successful osteogenesis. In this study, we have characterized the proliferation rates of immature (6-day-old rats, n = 40) and mature (adult rats, n = 10) dura cell cultures. In addition, we analyzed the expression of transforming growth factor beta-1, basic fibroblast growth factor-2, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and alkaline phosphatase. Our in vitro findings were corroborated with Northern blot analysis of mRNA expression in total cellular RNA isolated from snap-frozen age-matched dural tissues (6-day-old rats, n = 60; adult rats, n = 10). Finally, the capacity of cultured dural cells to form mineralized bone nodules was assessed. We demonstrated that immature dural cells proliferate significantly faster and produce significantly more proliferating cell nuclear antigen than mature dural cells (p < 0.01). Additionally, immature dural cells produce significantly greater amounts of transforming growth factor beta-1, basic fibroblast growth factor-2, and alkaline phosphatase (p < 0.01). Furthermore, Northern blot analysis of RNA isolated from immature and mature dural tissues demonstrated a greater than 9-fold, 8-fold, and 21-fold increase in transforming growth factor beta-1, osteocalcin, and collagen IalphaI gene expression, respectively, in immature as compared with mature dura mater. Finally, in keeping with their in vivo phenotype, immature dural cells formed large calcified bone nodules in vitro, whereas mature dural cells failed to form bone nodules even with extended culture. These studies suggest that differential expression of growth factors and extracellular matrix molecules may be a critical difference between the osteoinductive capacity of immature and mature dura mater. Finally, we believe that the biomolecular bone- and matrix-inducing phenotype of immature dura mater regulates the ability of young children and immature animals to heal calvarial defects.