Fulminant parvovirus infection following erythropoietin treatment in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections
Parvovirus B19, Human
We report the case of a 41-year-old black man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome who developed a severe chronic anemia due to parvovirus infection. Bone marrow biopsy revealed erythroid aplasia. The infectious nature of the anemia was not recognized, and the patient was treated with erythropoietin. The patient's reticulocyte response was inadequate, however, and he remained anemic. A second bone marrow biopsy showed erythroid hyperplasia and prominent intranuclear parvovirus inclusions within erythroid progenitors. Erythropoietin was discontinued and was followed by a course of intravenous immunoglobulin, which resulted in rapid correction of anemia. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of fulminant human parvovirus infection exacerbated by erythropoietin administration and documented by sequential bone marrow histologic examination. This case illustrates the critical importance of considering parvovirus in the etiology of chronic anemia with erythroid aplasia in immunocompromised patients.