The in vivo effect of bryostatin-1 on paclitaxel-induced tumor growth, mitotic entry, and blood flow
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols
Pretreatment of tumor cells with the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor bryostatin-1 enhances the cytotoxicity of most chemotherapeutic agents. However, in the case of paclitaxel, this effect has been shown in vitro to be best achieved when bryostatin-1 follows (rather than precedes) paclitaxel treatment. With combination trials of bryostatin-1 and paclitaxel planned for clinical trials and with only in vitro data available regarding drug sequence, we elected to undertake an in vivo study evaluating the effect of sequential bryostatin-1 and paclitaxel in a tumor-bearing mouse model and to correlate this effect to cell cycle events, tumor metabolism, and tumor blood flow. At the maximum tolerated i.p. dose, bryostatin-1 at 80 microg/kg resulted in a small but significant increase in tumor doubling time (4.2 +/- 0.3 days) compared with control tumors (3.0 +/- 0.3 days; P < 0.01). Mice treated with i.v. paclitaxel, administered at a dose of 12 mg/kg every 12 h for three doses, weekly for 3 weeks, had a tumor doubling time of 23.4 +/- 1.7 days. Mice pretreated with i.p. bryostatin-1 (80 microg/kg) followed 12 h later by i.v. paclitaxel (12 mg/kg every 12h for three doses) weekly for 3 weeks had a tumor doubling time of 9.7 +/- 1.1 days. This was significantly less (P < .001) than paclitaxel alone, which indicated an inhibitory effect by bryostatin-1 on paclitaxel therapy. In comparison, tumor-bearing mice that were treated with the same dose but with the sequence of paclitaxel followed by bryostatin-1 had a tumor doubling time of 29.6 +/- 0.6 days. This was significantly greater than the tumor doubling times for any condition tested (P < 0.01), demonstrating the sequence dependence of this combination. The efficacy of paclitaxel is dependent on mitotic entry, a step that requires activation of p34cdc2 kinase activity. Treatment with paclitaxel in vivo increased p34 cdc2 kinase activity in the mouse mammary tumors, whereas administration of bryostatin-1 before paclitaxel prevented the p34cdc2 kinase activation by paclitaxel. This was further evaluated in vitro by flow cytometry in MKN-74 human gastric cancer cells. As determined by MPM-2 labeling, which identifies cells in mitosis, pretreatment with bryostatin-1 prevented paclitaxel-treated cells from entering mitosis. Bryostatin-1 has been reported to induce changes in muscle metabolism and to decrease muscle blood flow. These events could impact on the interaction of bryostatin-1 with paclitaxel. Using proton-decoupled phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) spectroscopy in vivo, bryostatin-1 at 80 micro1g/kg induced a decrease in both intratumoral pH and high-energy phosphates. In vivo perfusion studies, using dynamic enhanced NMR imaging with gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid, also demonstrated decreased tumor blood flow. These studies suggest that the inhibition of tumor response to paclitaxel by bryostatin-1 is multifactorial and includes such diverse factors as inhibition of cell entry into mitosis, a decrease in pH and energy metabolism, and a decrease in tumor blood flow. These results indicate that, as this combination enters Phase I clinical trials, the sequence of paclitaxel followed by bryostatin-1 will be critical in the clinical trial design.