Presence of human papilloma virus in tumor tissue from children with retinoblastoma: An alternative mechanism for tumor development
Cell Cycle Proteins
Epidemiological studies have shown that the use of barrier methods of contraception is associated with a decreased incidence of papilloma virus infection and reduced risk of having a child with retinoblastoma. Thirty-nine primary retinoblastomas were analyzed for the presence of papilloma virus sequences. Tumor tissue sections were also used to assess the expression of the retinoblastoma protein and proliferative index. Papilloma sequences were detected in 14 of 39 (36%) tumors. Tumors in which viral sequences were detected were associated with a lower proliferative index (68% versus 78%; P = 0.015). Children with tumors containing viral sequences had a lower risk of extraocular disease (odds ratio, 9.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-49; P = 0.008) and a lower birth weight (2.9 versus 3.5 kg; P = 0.030). Based on these data, it is our hypothesis that papilloma viruses may play a role in the development of sporadic retinoblastoma. Detection of papilloma virus sequences and retinoblastoma protein in certain primary lesions suggests an alternative mechanism of tumor development for sporadic retinoblastoma.