Domain interactions in protein tyrosine kinase Csk
src Homology Domains
Csk (C-terminal Src kinase) is a protein tyrosine kinase that phosphorylates Src family member C-terminal tails, resulting in downregulation of Src family members. It is composed of three principal domains: an SH3 (Src homology 3) domain, an SH2 (Src homology 2) domain, and a catalytic domain. The impact of the noncatalytic domains on kinase catalysis was investigated. The Csk catalytic domain was expressed in Escherichia coli as a recombinant glutathione S-transferase-fusion protein and demonstrated to have 100-fold reduced catalytic efficiency. Production of the catalytic domain by proteolysis of full-length Csk afforded a similar rate reduction. This suggested that the reduction in catalytic efficiency of the recombinant catalytic domain was intrinsic to the sequence and not an artifact related to faulty expression. This rate reduction was similar for peptide and protein substrates and was due almost entirely to a reduced k(cat) rather than to effects on substrate K(m)s. Viscosity experiments on the catalytic fragment kinase reaction demonstrated that the chemical (phosphoryl transfer) step had a reduced rate. While the Csk SH2 domain had no intermolecular effect on the kinase activity of the Csk catalytic domain, the SH3 domain and SH3-SH2 fragment led to a partial rescue (4-5-fold) of the lost kinase activity. This rescue was not achieved with two other SH3 domains (lymphoid cell kinase, Abelson kinase). The extrapolated K(d) of interaction for the Csk catalytic domain with the Csk SH3 domain was 2.2 microM and that of the Csk catalytic domain with the Csk SH3-SH2 fragment was 8.8 microM. Taken together, these findings suggest that there is likely an intramolecular interaction between the catalytic and SH3 domains in full-length Csk that is important for efficient catalysis. By employing a Csk SH3 specific type II polyproline helix peptide and carrying out site-directed mutagenesis, it was established that the SH3 surface that interacts with the catalytic domain was distinct from the surface that binds type II polyproline helix peptides. This finding suggests a novel mode of protein-protein interaction for an SH3 domain. The implications for Csk substrate selectivity, regulation, and function are discussed.