Cytosolic adenylyl cyclase defines a unique signaling molecule in mammals
Second Messenger Systems
Mammals have nine differentially regulated isoforms of G protein-responsive transmembrane-spanning adenylyl cyclases. We now describe the existence of a distinct class of mammalian adenylyl cyclase that is soluble and insensitive to G protein or Forskolin regulation. Northern analysis indicates the gene encoding soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is preferentially expressed in testis. As purified from rat testis cytosol, the active form of sAC appears to be a fragment derived from the full-length protein, suggesting a proteolytic mechanism for sAC activation. The two presumptive catalytic domains of sAC are closely related to cyanobacterial adenylyl cyclases, providing an evolutionary link between bacterial and mammalian signaling molecules.