The Role of Nonlinear Dynamics in Cardiac Arrhythmia Control
The field of nonlinear dynamics has made important contributions toward a mechanistic understanding of cardiac arrhythmias. In recent years, many of these advancements have been in the area of arrhythmia control. This paper reviews the literature on analytical, modeling, and experimental nonlinear dynamical arrhythmia control with a focus on stimulation and pharmacologic techniques that have been developed, and in some cases used in experiments, to control reentrant rhythms (including spiral and scroll waves) and fibrillation. Although such approaches currently have practical limitations, they offer hope that nonlinear dynamical control techniques will be clinically useful in the coming years.