Pathways for phosphoinositide synthesis
In eukaryotic cells, phosphatidylinositol can be phosphorylated on the inositol ring by a series of kinases to produce at least seven distinct phosphoinositides. These lipids have been implicated in a variety of cellular processes, including calcium regulation, actin rearrangement, vesicle trafficking, cell survival and mitogenesis. The phosphorylated lipids can act as precursors of second messengers or act directly to recruit specific signaling proteins to the membrane. A number of the kinases responsible for producing these lipids have been purified and their cDNA clones have been isolated. The most well characterized of these enzymes are the phosphoinositide 3-kinases. However, progress has also been made in the characterization of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases and phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinases. In addition, new pathways involving phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinases, phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate 5-kinases and phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate 4-kinases have recently been described. The various enzymes and pathways involved in the synthesis of cellular phosphoinositides will be discussed.