Ambulatory blood pressure and metabolic abnormalities in hypertensive subjects with inappropriately high left ventricular mass
Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular
Appropriateness of left ventricular (LV) mass to cardiac workload can be evaluated by the ratio of observed LV mass to the value predicted for an individual's gender, height(2.7), and stroke work at rest (%PLVM). It is unclear which pathophysiological factors are associated with inappropriately high LV mass in hypertensive subjects. Adequate LV mass was defined by the 90% confidence interval (73% to 128%) of the distribution of %PLVM in 393 normal-weight normotensive subjects. In 185 hypertensive subjects (aged 56+/-11 years; 60% male, 29% black), according to %PLVM, 164 (88%) had adequate LV mass, 16 (9%) had inappropriately high LV mass (%PLVM >128%), and 5 (3%) had %PLVM <73% (low LV mass). Age, gender, smoking habit, proportion of never-treated subjects, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and creatinine levels did not differ significantly between subjects with adequate and inappropriately high LV mass. Body mass index, fasting glucose, and proportion of black subjects were higher (all P<0.05), while HDL cholesterol was lower (P<0.05) in subjects with inappropriately high LV mass. Blood pressure at the echocardiogram was comparable between subjects with adequate and inappropriately high LV mass, but the latter group had higher ambulatory blood pressure (P<0.01). Subjects with inappropriately high LV mass also had higher aortic root dimension and LV relative wall thickness and relatively lower LV systolic performance than those with adequate LV mass (all P<0.001). Larger aortic root diameter and lower systolic function were also found in hypertensive subjects with inappropriate LV hypertrophy compared with those with adequate LV hypertrophy. In an exploratory case-control study that compared subjects with low %PLVM with age-matched counterparts with adequate LV mass, low %PLVM was associated with lower body mass index, more favorable metabolic profile, and higher LV myocardial contractility. Higher body mass index, larger aortic root, and black race were independent correlates of increased %PLVM. Thus, in arterial hypertension, levels of LV mass inappropriately high for gender, cardiac workload, and height(2.7) are associated with higher body mass index, higher ambulatory blood pressure, larger aortic root diameters, and relatively low myocardial contractility.