Force and velocity measured for single molecules of RNA polymerase Academic Article Article uri icon


MeSH Major

  • Biophysics
  • DNA, Cruciform
  • Torque


  • RNA polymerase (RNAP) moves along DNA while carrying out transcription, acting as a molecular motor. Transcriptional velocities for single molecules of Escherichia coli RNAP were measured as progressively larger forces were applied by a feedback-controlled optical trap. The shapes of RNAP force-velocity curves are distinct from those of the motor enzymes myosin or kinesin, and indicate that biochemical steps limiting transcription rates at low loads do not generate movement. Modeling the data suggests that high loads may halt RNAP by promoting a structural change which moves all or part of the enzyme backwards through a comparatively large distance, corresponding to 5 to 10 base pairs. This contrasts with previous models that assumed force acts directly upon a single-base translocation step.

publication date

  • October 30, 1998



  • Academic Article


Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1126/science.282.5390.902

PubMed ID

  • 9794753

Additional Document Info

start page

  • 902

end page

  • 7


  • 282


  • 5390