Ligand binding to macrophage scavenger receptor-A induces urokinase- type plasminogen activator expression by a protein kinase-dependent signaling pathway
Macrophage scavenger receptor-type A (MSR-A) has been implicated in the transmission of cell signals and the regulation of diverse cellular functions (Falcone, D. J., and Ferenc, M. J. (1988) J. Cell. Physiol. 135, 387-396; Falcone, D. J., McCaffrey, T. A., and Vergilio, J. A. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 22726-22732; Palkama, T. (1991) Immunology 74, 432-438; Krieger, M., and Herz, J. (1994) Annu. Rev. Biochem. 63, 601-637); however, the signaling mechanisms are unknown. In studies reported here, we demonstrate that binding of both lipoprotein and non-lipoprotein ligands to MSR-A induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation and increased protein kinase C (PKC) activity leading to up-regulated urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) expression. Specifically, the binding of acetylated low density lipoprotein and fucoidan to MSR-A in human THP-1 macrophages triggered tyrosine phosphorylation of many proteins including phospholipase C-gamma1 and phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase. Inhibitors of tyrosine kinase dramatically reduced MSR-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation and PKC activity. Moreover, inhibitors of tyrosine kinase and PKC reduced uPA activity expressed by THP-1 macrophages exposed to MSR-A ligands. The intracellular signaling response for tyrosine phosphorylation following ligand binding was further demonstrated by using the stable MSR-transfected Bowes cells that express surface MSR-A. These findings establish for the first time a signaling pathway induced by ligand binding to MSR-A and suggest a molecular model for the regulation of macrophage uPA expression by specific ligands of the MSR-A.