Relation of left ventricular midwall function to cardiovascular risk factors and arterial structure and function
Ventricular Function, Left
Left ventricular (LV) midwall shortening (MWS) is subnormal in relation to LV circumferential end-systolic stress (ESS) (ESS-corrected MWS) in many hypertensive patients with normal LV chamber function and predicts subsequent morbidity and mortality. However, little is known of the relations of LV midwall function to demographic and metabolic variables or to arterial geometry. Asymptomatic, unmedicated normotensive (n=366) or hypertensive (n=282) adults were assessed with echocardiography and carotid ultrasound. In normal adults, lower LV MWS and ESS-corrected MWS, an index of LV contractility, were related independently to high total peripheral resistance, high heart rate, and male gender (all P<.00001), lower serum HDL cholesterol (P=.001) and diastolic pressure (P=.003), and for ESS-corrected MWS only, arterial relative wall thickness (RWT, P=.03). Among hypertensive patients, lower values for both midwall function indices were associated independently with higher peripheral resistance (P<.00001), heart rate (P<.00005), body mass index (P<.01), and arterial RWT (P=.04), as well as male gender (P<.0002). In the entire population, lower LV MWS was independently related to higher peripheral resistance, heart rate (both P<.00001), body mass index (P=.0006) and arterial RWT (P=.009); male gender (P<.00001); and lower age (P=.004), diastolic pressure (P=.042), and systolic carotid artery expansion (P=.032). Lower ESS-corrected MWS in the entire population was independently associated with higher peripheral resistance and heart rate (both P<.00001), body mass index (P=.0006), arterial RWT (P=.004); male gender; and lower diastolic pressure (both P<.00001), age (P<.00005), arterial expansion in systole (P=.006), and serum HDL cholesterol levels (P=.04). Among a subset (n=60), ESS-corrected MWS was positively related to apolipoprotein A1 (P=.004) and negatively to hemoglobin A1c (P<.01). Thus, higher LV midwall function is associated with female gender and more favorable profiles of hemodynamics, metabolic pattern, and arterial structure and function.