Factors affecting mobilization of peripheral blood progenitor cells in patients with lymphoma
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization
The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with poor mobilization of peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) or delayed platelet engraftment after high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with lymphoma. Fifty-eight patients with Hodgkin's disease or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma underwent PBPC transplantation as the "best available therapy" at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (New York, NY) between 1993 and 1995. PBPCs were mobilized with either granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) alone (n = 19) or G-CSF following combination chemotherapy (n = 39). Forty-eight of these patients underwent a PBPC transplant, receiving a conditioning regimen containing cyclophosphamide, etoposide, and either total body irradiation, total lymphoid irradiation, or carmustine. A median number of 4.6 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg were obtained with a median of three leukapheresis procedures. Mobilization of PBPCs using chemotherapy plus G-CSF was superior to G-CSF alone (6.7 x 10(6) versus 1.5 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg; P = 0.0002). Poorer mobilization of progenitor cells was observed in patients who had previously received stem cell-toxic chemotherapy, including (a) nitrogen mustard, procarbazine, melphalan, carmustine or > 7.5 g of cytarabine chemotherapy premobilization (2.0 x 10(6) versus 6.0 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg; P = 0.005), or (b) > or = 11 cycles of any previous chemotherapy (2.6 x 10(6) versus 6.7 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg; P = 0.02). Platelet recovery to > 20,000/microliter was delayed in patients who received < 2.0 x 10(6) CD34+ cells (median, 13 versus 22 days; P = 0.06). Patients who received > or = 11 cycles of chemotherapy prior to PBPC mobilization tended to have delayed platelet recovery to > 20,000/microliter and to require more platelet transfusions than less extensively pretreated patients (median, 13.5 versus 23.5 days; P = 0.15; median number of platelet transfusion episodes, 13 versus 9; P = 0.17). These data suggest that current strategies to mobilize PBPCs may be suboptimal in patients who have received either stem cell-toxic chemotherapy or > or = 11 cycles of chemotherapy prior to PBPC mobilization. Alternative approaches, such as ex vivo expansion or the use of other growth factors in addition to G-CSF, may improve mobilization of progenitor cells for PBPC transplantation.