Ganglion cysts of the lower extremity: An analysis of 54 cases and review of the literature
This article reviews 54 consecutive patients with lower extremity ganglion cysts that were surgically removed and histologically confirmed at the Hospital for Special Surgery from 1981 to 1993. Lower extremity ganglia were more common among women. Patients' ages ranged from 13 to 80 years, with the fifth and sixth decades being the most common. Size of the cysts ranged from 3 cm to 10 cm (average: 2.9 cm). Thirty-six (67%) patients had ganglion cysts of the foot and ankle, and 18 (33%) patients had ganglion cysts of the knee area. Four (7%) patients had intraosseous ganglia located in the proximal tibia, patella, and the first metatarsal head. Follow-up data of 40 (74%) patients at an average of 5.9 years (range: 1 to 12.5 years) were obtained. Satisfaction was reported by 83% of patients. Recurrence was seen in 10% of patients, and a report of no or mild pain was given by 86% of the group. Patients who underwent revision ganglion excision had inferior results. Only 25% reported satisfaction and 50% reported no or mild pain. Patients who underwent curettage of an intraosseous ganglion appeared to have superior results. All patients reported satisfaction and no or mild pain. The performance of a concomitant surgical procedure, the anatomic region of the ganglion, or type of postoperative immobilization did not appear to affect the outcome.