Clinical factors associated with positive bile cultures during primary percutaneous biliary drainage
Bile cultures provide valuable information that was useful for planning antibiotic prophylaxis and treatment. The likelihood of positive bile cultures can be predicted based on certain clinical variables. Continued investigation is needed to better predict bacterial flora in individual patients. Given the association between previous instrumentation and biliary colonization, noninvasive imaging modalities should be exhausted before invasive procedures are performed for solely diagnostic purposes in patients with biliary obstruction.