The current standard for primary chemotherapy in patients with ovarian cancer consists of platinum and taxane combination treatment. The roles of the intraperitoneal delivery of agents, and of the multiple new agents with phase II activity, are currently under investigation. Many new agents and combinations warrant further testing in the primary treatment setting. Recent advances in the treatment of cervical cancer involve the selection of agents for chemoradiation in locally advanced disease, the role of combination versus single agent therapy in recurrent disease, and the identification of a new agent with limited activity in advanced disease. Ongoing trials in patients with endometrial cancer are attempting to improve therapy for advanced disease, and are exploring the role of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with earlier disease stages.