Percutaneous placement of ventriculoatrial shunts in the pediatric population
Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts
The percutaneous placement of ventriculoatrial (VA) shunts has been previously described, usually in adults. We report a series of 7 pediatric cases ranging from 6 to 17 years. Five patients were female and 2 were male. All patients had prior ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts for hydrocephalus, of which 1 had been subsequently converted to a ventriculopleural shunt. Indications for conversion to a VA shunt were intra-abdominal infection in 6 cases and chronic pleuritic chest pain in 1 patient. The venous entry was the subclavian vein in all cases. All patients have remained asymptomatic since the operation. There were no complications associated with the procedures, with follow-up ranging from 2 to 12 months. This technique is a viable alternative to the open cervical approach for venous entry to the right atrium in the pediatric population.