To our knowledge, the importance of airway disease in HIV-positive patients has been infrequently noted. This deficit likely reflects a combination of factors including lack of familiarity with recent changes in clinical and epidemiologic patterns of pulmonary manifestations of HIV infection and documented limitations of chest radiography for identifying and differentiating airway disease from other causes of pulmonary disease in HIV-positive patients. Familiarity with the imaging findings for these various entities should facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment. The accuracy of CT in detecting airway disease [55-59] is well established and should be of value in excluding more common diseases that may be initially confused with airway abnormalities [60, 61]. Small airways disease, in particular, which may be occult or mimic an interstitial infiltrate on chest radiography, can be recognized with CT as likely representing infectious bronchitis or bronchiolitis. Patients with findings suggesting bacterial infections may benefit from empiric antibiotic therapy. CT also may be valuable for differentiating between various noninfectious pulmonary diseases, allowing a presumptive diagnosis of parenchymal Kaposi's sarcoma in the appropriate clinical context. In distinction, by detecting localized endobronchial or parenchymal abnormalities in patients with mycobacterial or fungal infections or lymphoma, CT may be valuable for deciding between various invasive methods of obtaining either histologic or bacteriologic diagnoses.