Subcellular locations of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase isoforms
Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures
Phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 4-kinase catalyzes the synthesis of PtdIns-4-P, the precursor of an array of lipid second messengers generated by additional phosphorylation by PtdIns-4-P 5-kinase and PtdIns 3-kinase. PtdIns 4-kinase activity is conserved from yeast to higher eukaryotes. Multiple isoforms of mammalian PtdIns 4-kinase have been purified, and the activities have been detected in almost all subcellular locations. We previously reported the cloning and characterization of the first mammalian PtdIns 4-kinase named PI4Kalpha (Wong, K., and Cantley, L. C. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 28878-28884). Alternatively spliced forms of PI4Kalpha have also been identified from several sources including bovine brain (Gehrmann, T., Vereb, G., Schmidt, M., Klix, D., Meyer, H. E., Varsanyi, M., and Heilmeyer, L. M., Jr. (1996) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1311, 53-63). Recently we isolated a distinct human PtdIns 4-kinase gene, named PI4Kbeta, that encodes an enzyme that is wortmannin sensitive (Meyers, R., and Cantley, L. C. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 4384-4390). Here we report the locations of these enzymes and provide evidence for other yet unidentified isoforms present in specific organelles. PI4Kalpha is mostly membrane-bound and located at the endoplasmic reticulum; whereas PI4Kbeta is in the cytosol and also present in the Golgi region. Neither of these isoforms accounts for the major type II PtdIns 4-kinase activity detected in the lysosomes and plasma membrane fraction.