Anginal status and prediction of cardiac events in patients enrolled in the asymptomatic cardiac ischemia pilot (ACIP) study
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
We hypothesized that among the patients enrolled in the Asymptomatic Cardiac Ischemia Pilot (ACIP) trial, those who reported angina either within the previous 6 weeks or experienced angina during ambulatory electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring during activities of daily life or during stress testing would be more likely to experience an adverse cardiac event within a year than those who did not experience angina. Of the 558 patients enrolled in ACIP, 325 (58.2%) reported angina in the previous 6 weeks, 300 (53.8%) had stress-induced angina, and 63 (11.3%) reported angina during activities of daily life associated with ST-segment changes on the 48-hour ambulatory electrocardiogram. Some patients had > 1 of these angina symptoms and thus 8 angina status categories were identified. Adverse cardiac events were defined as death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), or hospitalization for ischemic events, which included revascularization not specified by the ACIP protocol. One hundred and sixty-seven patients (29.9%) were asymptomatic (i.e., they never had angina) by our defined criteria. Three hundred ninety-one patients (70.1%) were symptomatic. Symptomatic patients had a higher incidence of death, MI, or hospitalization for ischemic events (15.3% symptomatic vs 7.8% asymptomatic, p = 0.016). History of angina within 6 weeks before randomization was predictive of death, MI, or hospitalization for ischemic event (p = 0.007). This finding was due to a large difference in the need for hospitalizations which would be expected to be driven by the presence of angina. By contrast, angina during ambulatory electrocardiogram or stress test was not predictive of an adverse cardiac event. The asymptomatic status of coronary disease patients who have objective documentation of ischemia is not uniformly defined and many different categories can be identified. In this population of patients with proven coronary artery disease and myocardial ischemia, a history of angina in the previous 6 weeks was a good predictor of an adverse event occurring in the next year.