Relationship of tissue and cellular interleukin-1 and lipopolysaccharide after endotoxemia and bacteremia
Distributions of immunoreactive interleukin-1 (IL-1) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were studied in the tissues of rats after intravenous injection of purified LPS or live Escherichia coli bacteria. IL-1 staining in the spleen peaked at 4-8 h, colocalized with LPS in marginal zone macrophages, and was undetectable 24 h after injection, whereas LPS staining peaked at 24 h and was detectable for 4 weeks. The tissue IL-1 response was similar for LPS and live bacteria. Thus, tissue IL-1 is down-regulated within hours despite maintenance of LPS in the same cells for weeks. Macrophages in liver and lung had only slight IL-1 staining despite intense staining for LPS. Tissue IL-1 production appears to be differentially regulated after gram-negative bacteremia; LPS cleared by liver and lung macrophages elicit minimal IL-1, whereas there is high local IL-1 production in the marginal zone of the spleen that may increase immune responses to bacterial wall antigens.