Transplantation of autologous peripheral blood progenitor cells procured after high-dose cytarabine-based consolidation chemotherapy for adults with acute myelogenous leukemia in first remission
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of high-dose cytarabine-anthracycline consolidation chemotherapy followed by autologous transplantation of chemotherapy/rHuG-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood progenitor cells for adult patients with acute myelogenous leukemia in first remission. Fifty-nine consecutive patients (median age 45, range 18-69) with acute myelogenous leukemia in first remission were enrolled on a study of high-dose cytarabine-mitoxantrone consolidation chemotherapy used as a method of in vivo purging for the purpose of autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation. A median of 7 x 10(8) peripheral blood mononuclear cells/kg were infused 1 day after preparative conditioning with 11.25 Gy total body irradiation and cyclophosphamide (120 mg/kg). Forty-six patients received myeloablative chemo-radiotherapy followed by the infusion of chemotherapy/rHu-G-CSF-mobilized autologous peripheral blood progenitor cells. The median time to both neutrophil and platelet recovery from transplant was 15 days (range, 11-36 and 5-253+ days, respectively). After a median follow-up of 27 months, 31 patients remain alive with 27 in complete remission. Median remission duration for all eligible patients is 12 months, and actuarial leukemia-free survival at 3 years is 42 +/- 14%. The actuarial risk of relapse is 54 +/- 15%. Toxicity of autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell transplant included treatment-related death in two patients and grade III/IV organ toxicity in six. Advanced age was a negative prognostic factor for leukemia-free survival. Our results demonstrate that autologous transplantation of chemotherapy-mobilized peripheral blood progenitor cells is feasible in an unselected population of adult patients with acute myelogenous leukemia in first remission producing improved leukemia-free survival with minimal toxicity.