Posttranslational regulation of cyclin D1 by retinoic acid: A chemoprevention mechanism
Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors
The retinoids are reported to reduce incidence of second primary aerodigestive cancers. Mechanisms for this chemoprevention are previously linked to all-trans retinoic acid (RA) signaling growth inhibition at G1 in carcinogen-exposed immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells. This study investigated how RA suppresses human bronchial epithelial cell growth at the G1-S cell cycle transition. RA signaled growth suppression of human bronchial epithelial cells and a decline in cyclin D1 protein but not mRNA expression. Exogenous cyclin D1 protein also declined after RA treatment of transfected, immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells, suggesting that posttranslational mechanisms were active in this regulation of cyclin D1 expression. Findings were extended by showing treatment with ubiquitin-dependent proteasome inhibitors: calpain inhibitor I and lactacystin each prevented this decreased cyclin D1 protein expression, despite RA treatment. Treatment with the cysteine proteinase inhibitor, E-64, did not prevent this cyclin D1 decline. High molecular weight cyclin D1 protein species appeared after proteasome inhibitor treatments, suggesting that ubiquitinated species were present. To learn whether RA directly promoted degradation of cyclin D1 protein, studies using human bronchial epithelial cell protein extracts and in vitro-translated cyclin D1 were performed. In vitro-translated cyclin D1 degraded more rapidly when incubated with extracts from RA treated vs. untreated cells. Notably, this RA-signaled cyclin D1 proteolysis depended on the C-terminal PEST sequence, a region rich in proline (P), glutamate (E), serine (S), and threonine (T). Taken together, these data highlight RA-induced cyclin D1 proteolysis as a mechanism signaling growth inhibition at G1 active in the prevention of human bronchial epithelial cell transformation.