Relation of patient characteristics to cardiac ischemia during daily life activity (an Asymptomatic Cardiac Ischemia Pilot data bank study)
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Cardiac ischemia during daily life activities, detected by ambulatory electrocardiographic (AECG) monitoring has been associated with increased risk for adverse outcomes. Because daily life ischemia is usually asymptomatic, prevalence and descriptive data of patients with asymptomatic cardiac ischemia (ACI) are not well defined. Accordingly, patients screened for the Asymptomatic Cardiac Ischemia Pilot (ACIP) trial by 48-hour AECG monitoring were investigated to identify factors associated with ACI. A total of 1,820 patients with ischemia on a screening stress test and/or known or suspected coronary artery disease underwent AECG monitoring. Their mean age was 61 years, range 33 to 89; 83% were men and 81% were white. On AECG monitoring, ACI occurred in 897 patients (49%). There was a modest trend (p = 0.04) between increasing age and ACI prevalence. Increased risk for ACI was observed in patients reporting angina 6 weeks before screening (odds ratio 1.38, 99% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.77, p = 0.0008). There was a positive association between increases in heart rate during daily life and ACI prevalence (p < 0.0001). No daily, monthly, or seasonal variation in ACI prevalence was found, although ACI was more prevalent in northern than southern sites. In this group of clinically stable patients, selected on the basis of high risk for coronary artery disease, the prevalence of ACI was higher than expected from previous reports. Several readily available clinical characteristics (i.e., advanced age, recent angina, increased heart rate change with daily activity) were associated with significantly increased probability of ACI.