Cure of antimony-unresponsive Indian visceral leishmaniasis with amphotericin B lipid complex
Antimony Sodium Gluconate
Twenty-one Indian patients with visceral leishmaniasis who did not respond to or relapsed after 28-60 days of pentavalent antimony therapy were treated with amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC). Five infusions (3 mg/kg each) given every second day over 9 days (total dose, 15 mg/kg) resulted in a 100% apparent cure response. In 4 other patients who had not responded to antimony, apparent cure was also induced by ABLC given 3 mg/kg a day 5 consecutive days (total dose, 15 mg/kg). Fever and chills developed routinely during the initial 2-h infusions; these reactions were tolerated and diminished with successive infusions. Six months after treatment, all 25 patients were healthy, had parasite-free bone marrow aspirates, and were considered cured. ABLC is effective short-course therapy for kala-azar patients who do not respond to conventional antimony treatment.