Multiple breathhold 3D time-of-flight MR angiography of the renal arteries
Magnetic Resonance Angiography
A technique is described for angiographic imaging of the renal arteries with acquisition performed over several periods of suspended respiration. The 3D Fourier transform (FT) gradient-echo angiographic sequence uses magnetization preparation and appropriately chosen delay times for background nulling and time-of-flight enhancement of the vasculature. The sequence was applied to 10 volunteers, each of whom was imaged in three ways: (i) over a series of breathholds in which feedback was provided to enable reproducible breathholding; (ii) over a series of breathholds with no feedback; and (iii) over continuous respiration. Results were evaluated by measuring the transverse extent of the well-delineated renal vasculature and by noting the distal extent of the vasculature branching (main, segmental, and interlobar branches). The transverse extent of renal vasculature visible with breathhold feedback, breathholding, and free breathing was 6.1 +/- 0.9 cm, 5.0 +/- 1.8 cm, and 4.0 +/- 1.4 cm, respectively (mean +/- SD). Breathhold feedback enabled visualization of segmental renal arteries bilaterally in all 10 volunteers.