Reduction of development of left ventricular hypertrophy in salt-loaded Dahl salt-sensitive rats by angiotensin II receptor inhibition
To determine the effect of the angiotensin II AT1 receptor antagonist losartan (DuP753) on echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) anatomy in Dahl rats on high sodium diet, 27 Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl-S, 13 on drug and 14 receiving tap water) and 27 Dahl salt-resistant rats (Dahl-R, 13 on drug and 14 receiving tap water) were studied by M-mode echocardiography during 8 weeks of 8% NaCl diet. At the endpoint (after 8 weeks or the last echocardiogram for animals who died earlier), Dahl-S receiving losartan had lower LV mass (1.6 +/- 0.4 g/kg 0.59) than Dahl-S receiving tap water (2.2 +/- 0.7 g/kg 0.59; P < .005), although blood pressure was only partially reduced (167 +/- 29 v 195 +/- 52; P = .05). This difference was mainly due to lower LV wall thickness (P < .02), with a less consistent decrease in LV chamber size in Dahl-S receiving losartan. Blood pressure was normal in Dahl-R (tap water group = 116 +/- 11 mm Hg; losartan group = 115 +/- 13 mm Hg) and losartan had no effect on LV mass (1.6 +/- 0.4 g/kg 0.59) in both groups). In the majority of rats, echocardiographic measurements were compared between the end of second or third week and the last available study: LV mass increased in salt-loaded Dahl-S receiving tap water (1.6+/- 0.6 to 2.1 +/- 0.7 g/kg 0.59, P < .04) and was stable in Dahl-S receiving losartan (1.5 +/- 0.1 to 1.5 +/- 0.3 g/kg 0.59), paralleling changes in LV chamber dimension. Thus, a high salt diet leads to hypertension and eccentric LV hypertrophy in Dahl-S but not in Dahl-R. Inhibition of angiotensin II AT1 receptors reduces the development of LV hypertrophy in Dahl-S rats despite lack of efficient control of blood pressure.