Rapid advances are occurring in the diagnosis and treatment of the fetus with a red blood cell or platelet cytopenia. Noninvasive methods of monitoring the alloimmunized pregnancy, invasive methods such as amniocentesis and cordocentesis, and intrauterine transfusion therapy of both red cells and platelets, are being further refined to allow the prompt recognition and treatment of fetal cytopenias. Specialized centers have now accrued a large experience in the management of the fetus severely affected by alloimmunization. Advances in ultrasound, blood banking techniques, and genetic engineering technology have spurred the most recent advances. The indications for diagnosis, timing and frequency of invasive procedures for treatment, and technical considerations regarding preparation of blood products and volume of transfusion, are outlined in this review. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) determination of fetal Rh(D) genotype by chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis in the first or second trimesters is a recent clinically useful advance. The advent of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and the potential for gene therapy are exciting advances in the treatment and prevention of hematopoietic diseases, including, but not limited, to the fetal cytopenias.