Panic disorder: Diagnosis, epidemiology, and clinical course
Panic disorder occurs frequently and present in a wide variety of medical settings. It is often comorbid with mood disorders, substance abuse disorders, and other anxiety disorders. Individuals with panic disorder have lower recovery rates than those with depression, as well as high rates of relapse, and many have a chronic course. Panic disorder is associated with numerous adverse psychological consequences, including poor general medical and emotional health, increased risk of alcohol abuse, marital and occupational dysfunction, greater use of medication, and increased emergency room use. In addition, rates of suicide attempts among individuals with panic disorder may be as high as 20% and exceed the 15% rate of suicide attempts among individuals with depression. This paper will examine the development of panic disorder and its psychological and clinical consequences.