In vivo adenovirus vector-mediated transfer of the human thrombopoietin cDNA maintains platelet levels during radiation- and chemotherapy-induced bone marrow suppression
Radiation Injuries, Experimental
Thrombopoietin (TPO, c-mpl ligand) has emerged as a major hematopoietic cytokine stimulating megakaryocyte proliferation, endomitosis, and platelet production. This study shows that a single administration of an adenovirus (Ad) vector encoding TPO (AdCMV.TPO) abrogates thrombocytopenia induced in mice by carboplatin and irradiation. Normal Balb/c mice receiving the vector had increased platelet counts peaking at 7 days and returning to baseline by day 15. Mice rendered pancytopenic with 500 rads and 1.2 mg of carboplatin had a nadir platelet count of five percent of the baseline. Mice receiving AdCMV.TPO 3 days before receiving irradiation and chemotherapy achieved a platelet nadir fourfold higher, and had significant reduction in duration of thrombocytopenia, than mice receiving the control Ad vector. Introduction of AdCMV.TPO the same day of chemotherapy and irradiation was equally effective in acceleration of platelet recovery, but administration of AdCMV.TPO 3 days after chemotherapy-radiation had little effect on platelet recovery. At 30 days after therapy bone marrow and spleen of mice treated with AdCMV.TPO were populated with a large number of polyploid megakaryocytes, but there was no evidence of circulating megakaryocytes in the liver or lungs and no pathologic bone abnormalities such as osteosclerosis or myelofibrosis. These observations suggest that an Ad vector may be an excellent delivery system to provide adequate TPO production to maintain platelet levels in circumstances associated with life-threatening thrombocytopenia.