3D MR angiography of pulmonary arteries using real-time navigator gating and magnetization preparation
Magnetic Resonance Angiography
An ECG-triggered magnetization-prepared segmented 3D fast gradient echo sequence was developed to perform pulmonary arterial MR angiography. A selective inversion recovery pulse was used in the magnetization preparation to suppress venous vasculature. A real-time gating technique based on navigator echoes was implemented to reduce respiration effects. Pencil-beam navigator echoes were acquired immediately before and after the readout train and processed in real-time to dynamically measure the diaphragm position, which was used to control data acquisition with an accept-or-reject-reacquire logic. In a study of 10 volunteers, a gated 3D acquisition with 28 slices required on average approximately 4 min of acquisition time, and six to seven segmental arteries related to the interlobar trunk of the pulmonary artery were depicted. The use of SIR pulse reduced venous signal by 99%. The gated acquisitions were superior to the ungated acquisitions (n = 10, P < 0.005). The real-time navigator gating technique is effective for reduction of respiration effects and thereby makes high resolution 3D MRA of the pulmonary arteries feasible.