Tumor necrosis factor-α and tumor necrosis factor receptors in the failing human heart
Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
In summary, the results of this study constitute the initial demonstration that TNF receptor proteins are dynamically regulated in patients with advanced congestive heart failure. Moreover, the observation that failing hearts express elevated levels of TNF-alpha suggests that overexpression of this cytokine may be one of several different maladaptive mechanisms responsible for the progressive cardiac decompensation that occurs in advanced heart failure.