In vitro sensitivity of post-bone marrow transplantation CFU-GM and BFU-E to TNF-α and IFN-γ
Bone Marrow Transplantation
Erythroid Precursor Cells
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Graft failure remains one of the limitations of successful marrow transplantation. T cell-depleted (TCD) bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is reported to have a higher incidence of graft failure than unmodified (UM) BMT. In most cases of secondary graft failure, no cellular immune mechanism has been identified and etiology remains unclear. In an effort to delineate a cytokine-mediated mechanism of secondary graft failure, we investigated colony-forming unit-granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) and burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E) growth and pattern of inhibition by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma) in the early posttransplant period (day 28). Gradient-separated bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNC) from 38 recipients of TCD BMT, 15 recipients of UM BMT, and 23 normal donors (NLD) were plated in cultures of semisolid, serum-containing medium with the addition of stem cell factor (SCF), erythropoietin (Epo), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Three to seven times more CFU-GM and BFU-E colonies were cultures from NLD BM-derived BMMNC than from BMMNC of recipients of TCD or UM BMT (p = 0.0001). There was no difference in colony number between recipients of UM and TCD BMT on day 28 posttransplant, however. Under G-CSF culture conditions, CFU-GM colonies from recipients of UM and TCD BMT were more susceptible (p < or = 0.05) to suppression by IFN-gamma at concentrations of 1 and 100 U/mL than NLD BMMNC-derived colonies. No other difference in IFN-gamma inhibition was detected among the three groups. Under G-CSF and GM-CSF culture conditions, maximal inhibition was obtained at TNF-alpha concentrations > 10 ng/mL. Although early posttransplant BMMNC was more sensitive to inhibition than NLD-derived BMMNC, overall, no difference in colony growth or percent of inhibition induced by TNF-alpha or IFN-gamma was observed between recipients of unmodified and T. cell-depleted transplants. In this series, two recipients of TCD BM and one recipient of UM BMT developed graft failure; no distinct pattern of colony growth or colony inhibition was evident for those patients. The optimized in vitro conditions and specific cytokines used in this study do not indicate any quantitative or qualitative differences in the hematopoietic progenitors present in recipients of unmodified and T cell-depleted bone marrow early posttransplant to explain an increased risk of graft failure following a T cell-depleted BMT compared to an unmodified BMT.