Role of COOH-terminal phosphorylation in the regulation of casein kinase Iδ
Casein kinase I delta is a member of the casein kinase I (CKI) family, a group of second messenger independent protein kinases. We present evidence that the COOH-terminal domain of CKI delta has regulatory properties. CKI delta expressed in Escherichia coli was activated by heparin, as found previously, and by treatment with the catalytic subunit of type-1 protein phosphatase (CS1). Concomitant with activation by CS1, there was a reduction in the apparent molecular weight of CKI delta from 55,000 to 49,000 as judged by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Truncation of CKI delta by removal of the COOH-terminal 110 amino acids eliminated the ability of CS1 to activate or to increase electrophoretic mobility. Casein kinase I alpha, a 37-kDa isoform that lacks an extended COOH-terminal domain, was not activated by CS1 or the presence of heparin. However, a chimeric enzyme consisting of CKI alpha fused to the COOH-terminal domain of CKI delta was activated by both heparin and CS1. Analysis of the effects of CS1 on a series of CKI delta COOH-terminal truncation mutants identified an inhibitory region between His317 and Pro342, which contained six potential phosphorylation sites. From analysis of the specific activites of these truncation mutants, removal of the same region resulted in enzyme with a specific activity nearly 10-fold greater than wild-type. Thus, CKI delta activity can be regulated by phosphorylation of its COOH terminus, which may serve to create an autoinhibitory domain. This mechanism of regulation could have important consequences in vivo.